Different programs on primary and secondary prevention of muscle and tendon injuries have been proposed. In general, it seems that they can reduce the incidence, but scientific evidence is still limited and it has only been proved on specific pathologies and groups of sportsmen.
Edition 2013

Researchers:Dr. Daniel Medina, and Dr. Guillermo Quintás

Professional sport involves strenuous and intense physical activity comprising both, anaerobic and aerobic phases. Football players are subjected to intense training programms to boost their endurance and speed as well as to reduce recovery times. A high number of matches and practices per calendar year might cause an unbalanced production of free radicals and a subsequent cellular loss of redox homeostasis, supporting the appearance of the detrimental overtraining syndrome (i.e. a common vicious cycle due to an inbalance between exercise and recovery leading to transient inflammation and an impairment of performance) leading to postexercise inflammatory responses with propagation to muscle damage.

This project focues on the development of a metabolomic model for scoring the fitness and recovery states of professional athletes throughout a season. Therefore, it would provide an additional tool to appropriate personalized training that might thus reducing the risk of muscle damage as a consequence of sport practice.

The project will test the following hypothesis:

H1. The oxidative stress status of professional players can be described by a multivariate model based on a reduced subset of metabolic biomarkers.

H2. The model could then be used to score the fitness state of players as well as their recovery after match. That information would be useful for the phasing of training and diet programs in order to maintain high performance during sports season.

In order to achive this objective, a series of samples before exercise and during the recovering phase will be collected and thoroughly analysed to study the dynamic metabolomic response to exercise.
Influence of genetic polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes related to the repair of connective tissue in the degree of injury and recovery time. (Rosa Artells and Ricard Pruna) - Edition 2012
Edition 2012

Researchers: Rosa Artells and Ricard Pruna

Introduction: In recent years, studies have begun to be published, showing the importance of the genetic component in the pathogenesis of soft tissue noncontact injuries.

Objetives: To analyze the relationship between genetic polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes involved in tissue repair and regeneration and the possible relationship with the repair, tissue regeneration, injury incidence, plus time of recovery of the tissue non-contact injuries.

Material y Methods: We analyzed the blood of 73 professional football players and record the soft tissue noncontact injuries (type, grade and recovery time) of them. The SNPs analyzed were: Elastin (ELN); Titin (TTN), SRY-related HMG-box (SOX15), Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) Chemokine, CC motif, ligand 2 (CCL2), Collagen type I alpha1 (COL1A1), type 5 Collagen alpha 1 (COL5A1) and Tenascin C (TNC). The analysis of the SNP was performed by allelic discrimination technique.

Results: There were 242 injuries. 203 were muscle, correlating with the degree of injury IGF2 (p = 0.032). We observed a trend between the degree of damaged muscle and CCL2 (p = 0.013) and COL5A1 (p = 0.07). 24 patients were joint elastin interacting with the degree of injury (p = 0.009) and recovery time (p = 0.027). There was no relationship between the SNPs studied and grade or recovery time of 15 tendon injuries.

Conclusions: SNPs in IGF2, CCL2, COL5A1 and ELN can relate to the degree of the injury and the recovery time of non-contact soft tissue injuries.

Utility: Knowing this information and determine the genetic profile of professional athletes can be useful, as the perpetrators of this study showed, in the way to plan training to try to minimize the risk of injury in those genetically predisposed players and to anticipate the recovery time when they occurred.

Figure1: Relationship IGF2, CCL2 and COL5A1 with the degree of muscle injury. A) Individuals heterozygous GC IGF2 submits minor injuries. B) The presence of the C allele in a genotype conferred protective CCL2 regarding the severity of the injury. C) Tendency to show that the presence of the T allele could lead to more serious injuries individual.

Figure 2: Relationship of the ELN to the degree of injury and the recovery time ligamentous injuries. A) The absence of allele G imply that the individual suffer more serious injuries. B) The presence of the G allele determines that individuals submit faster recovery times.

Table: Genotype frequencies related to the severity
Profile muscle strength and flexibility in elite hockey players. (Joaquim Chaler Vilaseca) - Edition 2011
Edition 2011

Researcher: Joaquim Chaler Vilaseca

Objectives: To describe the profile of flexibility and strength in elite hockey players, analyze the relationship between these parameters and relate this to hamstring previous injuries (IT), by gender and dominance. Collect prospectively the occurrence of injuries and relate the findings of strength and flexibility.

Material and Methods: Retrospective study of a sample of 45 elite hockey players (30 men and 15 women) in which they evaluated the muscle shortening preseason IT psoes iliacus, adductor, quadriceps and calf muscles. Using isokinetic dynamometry the moments generated by extensors are recorded and the knee flexors, concentric and eccentric mode (the second). Bilateral differences are calculated. Ratios are calculated similarly agonist / antagonist conc / conc and combined eccentric flexors / extensors concentric to estimate muscle strength imbalances. Are collected prior injuries IT. Lesions will be prospectively evaluated after the evaluation.

Results: All records of Peak Torque (PT) are higher in men than in women but no differences in bilateral differences. The ratios tend to be higher in women and significantly in the ratio cc I / Q 240 s-1. . Women have more flexible quadriceps, adductors psoes left and right ilium. Both men and women have found higher values detected of PT to the right than to the left. In men with previous IT injury, a significantly higher PT is observed, ratios cc I / Q 60 º s-1 higher [cc ratios I / Q 60 º s-1> 0.79 (0.63 ± 0.08)] the last, unlike football players, and an increment in adductors flexibility. We found positive correlation between flexibility and strength. Women with previous injury tend to be more flexible and have higher PT but not significantly. In the ratios more variability is found. Some muscle groups exhibit negative correlation between flexibility and strength.

Conclusions: The profile of flexibility and strength is different according to sex, dominance and also depending on the sport. In men with previous IT injuries recorded muscle imbalance indicating a relative deficiency of extenders over the knee flexors. In women were unable to demonstrate any relationship between antagonist and agonist ratios prior injuries.

(At present the analysis of the lesions appeared after isokinetic shortening are uncomplete and the analyzing of its predictive validity, once these are done the project will conclude with the production of a manuscript).

Figure 1. Subject performing isokinetic testing of knee flexion and extensor

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